Nguyên tố, Hoá chất và Hoá học

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# Ký hiệu Tên Trọng lượng nguyên tử Cấu hình electron
1 H Hyđrô, Hiđro 1.00794 1s1
2 He Heli 4.002602 1s2
3 Li Lithi, Liti 6.941 [He] 2s1
4 Be Berili 9.012182 [He] 2s2
5 B Bo 10.811 [He] 2s2 2p1
6 C Cacbon 12.0107 [He] 2s2 2p2
7 N Nitơ 14.0067 [He] 2s2 2p3
8 O Oxy, Oxi 15.9994 [He] 2s2 2p4
9 F Flo 18.9984032 [He] 2s2 2p5
10 Ne Neon, Nê-ông 20.1797 [He] 2s2 2p6
11 Na Natri 22.98976928 [Ne] 3s1
12 Mg Magiê 24.305 [Ne] 3s2
13 Al Nhốm 26.9815386 [Ne] 3s2 3p1
14 Si Silic 28.0855 [Ne] 3s2 3p2
15 P Photpho 30.973762 [Ne] 3s2 3p3
16 S Lưu huỳnh 32.065 [Ne] 3s2 3p4
17 Cl Clo 35.453 [Ne] 3s2 3p5
18 Ar Agon 39.948 [Ne] 3s2 3p6
19 K Kali 39.0983 [Ar] 4s1
20 Ca Canxi 40.078 [Ar] 4s2
21 Sc Scandi 44.955912 [Ar] 3d1 4s2
22 Ti Titan 47.867 [Ar] 3d2 4s2
23 V Vanađi 50.9415 [Ar] 3d3 4s2
24 Cr Crom 51.9961 [Ar] 3d5 4s1
25 Mn Mangan 54.938045 [Ar] 4s2 3d5
26 Fe Sắt 55.845 [Ar] 4s2 3d6
27 Co Coban 58.933195 [Ar] 3d7 4s2
28 Ni Nikel 58.6934 [Ar] 3d8 4s2
29 Cu Đồng 63.546 [Ar] 3d10 4s1
30 Zn Kẽm 65.409 [Ar] 3d10 4s2
31 Ga Gali 69.723 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
32 Ge Gecmani 72.64 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
33 As Asen 74.9216 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
34 Se Selen 78.96 [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p4
35 Br Brom 79.904 [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5
36 Kr Kripton 83.798 [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
37 Rb Rubiđi 85.4678 [Kr] 5s1
38 Sr Stronti 87.62 [Kr] 5s2
39 Y Ytri 88.90585 [Kr] 4d1 5s2
40 Zr Ziriconi 91.224 [Kr] 4d2 5s2
41 Nb Niobi 92.90638 [Kr] 4d4 5s1
42 Mo Molypđen, Molipđen 95.94 [Kr] 4d5 5s1
43 Tc Tecnexi (98) [Kr] 4d5 5s2
44 Ru Ruteni 101.07 [Kr] 4d7 5s1
45 Rh Rođi 102.9055 [Kr] 4d8 5s1
46 Pd Palađi 106.42 [Kr] 4d10
47 Ag Bạc 107.8682 [Kr] 4d10 5s1
48 Cd Catmi, Cađimi 112.411 [Kr] 4d10 5s2
49 In Indi 114.818 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
50 Sn Thiếc 118.71 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
51 Sb Antimon 121.76 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
52 Te Telua, Telu 127.6 [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p4
53 I Iot, Iođ 126.90447 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
54 Xe Xenon 131.293 [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
55 Cs Xezi, Xêzi 132.9054519 [Xe] 6s1
56 Ba Bari 137.327 [Xe] 6s2
57 La Lantan 138.90547 [Xe] 5d1 6s2
58 Ce Xeri 140.116 [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
59 Pr Prazeođim 140.90765 [Xe] 4f3 6s2
60 Nd Neođim 144.242 [Xe] 4f4 6s2
61 Pm Prometi (145) [Xe] 4f5 6s2
62 Sm Samari 150.36 [Xe] 4f6 6s2
63 Eu Europi 151.964 [Xe] 4f7 6s2
64 Gd Gađolini 157.25 [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
65 Tb Tecbi 158.92535 [Xe] 4f9 6s2
66 Dy Đysprosi, Đisprozi 162.5 [Xe] 4f10 6s2
67 Ho Holmi, Honmi 164.93032 [Xe] 4f11 6s2
68 Er Eribi 167.259 [Xe] 4f12 6s2
69 Tm Tuli 168.93421 [Xe] 4f13 6s2
70 Yb Ytecbi 173.04 [Xe] 4f14 6s2
71 Lu Lutexi 174.967 [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d1
72 Hf Hafini 178.49 [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
73 Ta Tantali, Tantan 180.94788 [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
74 W Vonfam 183.84 [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
75 Re Reni 186.207 [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
76 Os Osimi, Osmi 190.23 [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
77 Ir Iriđi 192.217 [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
78 Pt Platin 195.084 [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
79 Au Vàng 196.966569 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
80 Hg Thuỷ ngân 200.59 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
81 Tl Tali 204.3833 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
82 Pb Chì 207.2 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
83 Bi Bitmut, Bismut 208.9804 [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
84 Po Poloni (209) [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
85 At Astatin (210) [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5
86 Rn Rađơn (222) [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6
87 Fr Franxi (223) [Rn] 7s1
88 Ra Rađi (226) [Rn] 7s2
89 Ac Actini (227) [Rn] 6d1 7s2
90 Th Thori 232.0381 [Rn] 6d2 7s2
91 Pa Protactini 231.03588 [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2
92 U Urani, Uran 238.02891 [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
93 Np Neptuni (237) [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
94 Pu Plutoni (244) [Rn] 5f6 7s2
95 Am Amerixi (243) [Rn] 5f7 7s2
96 Cm Curi (247) [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
97 Bk Beckeli (247) [Rn] 5f9 7s2
98 Cf Califoni (251) [Rn] 5f10 7s2
99 Es Ensteni (252) [Rn] 5f11 7s2
100 Fm Fecmi (257) [Rn] 5f12 7s2
101 Md Menđelevi (258) [Rn] 5f13 7s2
102 No Nobeli (259) [Rn] 5f14 7s2
103 Lr Lorenxi, Lawrenci (262) [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2
104 Rf Rutherfordi (265) [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
105 Db Dubni (268) [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2
106 Sg Seaborgi (263) [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2
107 Bh Bohri (272) [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2
108 Hs Hassi (278) [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2
109 Mt Meitneri (278) [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2
110 Ds Darmstadti (281) [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1
111 Rg Roentgeni (280) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1
112 Cn Copernici (285) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2
113 Nh Nihoni (284) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1
114 Fl Flerovi (289) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2
115 Mc Moscovi (288) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3
116 Lv Livermori (293) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4
117 Ts Ununsepti (294) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5
118 Og Ununocti (294) [Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d10 7p6
Bảng tuần hoàn
Định nghĩa Ngày nay
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information;
a nucleic acid, usually of very high molecular weight, consisting of a linear sequence of monomer units of deoxyribonucleotides, occurring in most organisms in pairs of strands, wound together in the form of a double helix; it is the main component of chromosomes and contains the genetic information which is the basis of heredity, transmitted from parent to progeny, and found in all living organisms except for certain viruses which have RNA as their basic genetic material;